This study deals with humanitarian relations showing how man should deal with parents, children, relatives, neighbors, friends and other peoples in addition to enemies and opponents. Sunna has explained all the aspects of the social, economic and political relations.
Humanitarian relations in the Prophet texts are based on justice, mercy, compassion and other good morals and sublime values. Prophet Mohammed urges the Muslims, in His sayings and actions, to deal compassionately with those obeying Him but it is rather strange to find that He urges them to do the same with those disobeying. Dealing with the disobedient and non–Muslims, as many think, should be based on violence and force but this is not true as Prophet Mohammed was sent as a mercy for all the humanity.
This study focus on this great aspect through reviewing the Prophet sayings and actions indicating compassion with the disobedient and non–Muslims showing that compassion with the disobedient is not against sharia limits and orders. This is does not also indicate the negligence of corruption and the impedance of enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong as such things are of the basic aspects of Islam.
Dealing compassionately with the disobedient does not also indicate the abandon of differences among Islam and other religions and praising other false religions and corrupted doctrines as this will lead to equity among the right and the false as we have no right to equate those whom Allah has differentiated.
Compassion and mercy are adopted in certain situations. When reviewing the Sunna, one could see that the Prophet has adopted force in dealing with some people and one has no right to claim that compassion should have been adopted as the Prophet has adopted the adequate procedures in the adequate situations.
The Prophet sayings teach us how to deal compassionately with the disobedient and non–Muslims through reviewing them in two sections.
Concerning limits and punishments, there are certain kinds of compassion. Sunna refers to forgiving the disobedient before being referred to the ruler and the ruler could delay the punishment as possible as he could. We are not allowed to scoff of those punished if they have true belief.
The attempt to divert the intention of the disobedient, treating them, both materially and significantly, and calling them wisely and gently is of the greatest aspects of compassion.
Repentance is also characterized by compassion through its simple requirements that make the repentant as the one who has committed no sins and mistakes.
Other kind of compassion is guiding the disobedient to causes of Allah forgiveness as many texts insist on compassionately treating the disobedient after their death whether they are repentant or not.
Texts also indicated that the disobedient should be well treated and investigating their actions, listening to their excuses, defending those who have good deeds and attempting not to punish them due to their good deeds.
Non–Muslims should also be treated compassionately as texts warn against the killing of those under custody.
The Prophet texts also guided the well treatment of prisoners and forgiving them after being captured even if they were enemies.
Texts also show that praying God for the disobedient is preferred as the Prophet Mohammed used to do so.
Prophet Mohammed also dealt compassionately with the hypocrites despite they intended aggression towards the Muslims.
The Prophet Texts also showed that when non–Muslims are dying the Muslim should be willing to make them die as Muslims as this could be a mean for their survival in the hereafter.