the Position of an organizations of ispartia and AL dawia from the war of al naser salah alden al ayobi
Collage of Islamic Sciences Magazine,
2009, Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 85-114
During the first half of the Sixth century A. H. / towlevth century
A. D., Syria witnessed the emergence of two religious organizations, which are the knights of Hospitallar and the knights of the Temple. At the beginning, the objectives of these two organizations were charitable and humanitarian. After that they turned to be military orders, which had an important role in terrorizing Muslims, killing them and supporting the crusader’s campaigns against Syria.
These organizations had a hostile attitude Toward of Saladin since 573 A. H./1177 A. D., and what accompanied that when the knights of the temple order started the construction of the Jacob ford stronghold to observe the movements of Muslims and limiting their attacks at that area.
Our study tackled the military role of those orders when they took part with the Prince Arnat in their aggression against Muslims in Syria and Arabia in 577 A. H./1181 A. D. and when they attacked the trade caravans and looting them. The two organizations a vital role in the battle of Hettin in 583 A. H./1187A. D., in which Muslims achieved a critical victory over the crusaders. In addition to the role of these two organization in defending city of Sour against the Muslims' siege in the same year and striving disparately to keep the city.
The study dealt also with the political role of Gerard Redford – the leader of the knights of the temple – who establish Guy de Lusignan on the throne of Crusade Jerusalem Kingdom (582-591 A. H./1186-1194 A. D.). In addition to that he overwhelmed King Guy de Lusignan and his political and military decisions and he induced him to fight in the two battles (Hetttin and Fountain of Cresson against Muslims without indifferent to the advises of the prince of Tripoli Raymond III. Finally, the Knights of Hospitallar and the Knights of the Temple participated in the events and the battles of the third Crusade campaign, especially in the battle of Arsoff in 587 A. H./ 1191A. D. which was won by the crusaders.
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