the Islamic Intellect
Intellectual and verbal disagreements are considered an indication that the freedom in Islamic religion is ample. These opinions have affected human and social intellect, and analyzed and treated many intellectual problems. For this reason, the researcher showed, in this research, the impact of these verbal disagreements upon the Islamic intellect. The plan of research is as follows:
Chapter one deals with concept of belief, which is the first necessary basis of Moslim. Any defect in the basis may nullify the pillars of faith. The concept of has not been changed since mission of Adam - Allah's peace be upon him - till mission of Mohammed - Allah's blessing and peace be upon him -.
Chapter two tackles relation between theology and Islamic belief. This relationship made the theology deals with issues of religion origions confirming and defending it against those who differ in opinions. Theology treated many disagreements and details in opinions and ideas. It is not necessary that this disagreement in issues such attributes, relation between god's ability and human one as well as concept of vision in paradise is considered a main point in belief, because they are ideas that arised at the early stage of mission.
Chapter three concerns words of some Islamic mentors with regard to verbal disagreements. The principle determined by the scholars, the judge Al-Baqillani, Imam Al-Nawawi, Al-Sharif Al-Jarjani ...etc, is not to consider the person who commits a sin as infidel unless he validates it. This is the concept of medium in Islam without extravagance or restriction.
Chapter four treats impact of verbal disagreements that became obvious, after arising theology, by widening the intellectual realizations of Moslims in such verbal ideas, creating Islamic scientific curriculum and founding Islamic schools. Each school follows a special intellectual manner and trend. This led the poeple of simple ideas to fanaticism for each manner or trend; hence, they considered this intellectual and scientific wealth as a reason of separation and disagreement.
Hence, the role of verbal disagreements in the Islamic intellect became obvious. These disagreements are really considered one of Islamic intellectual development indications, because some people who believe that this disagreement is the basis of separation, yet it is the basis of intellectual freedom in the Islamic religion that unites but not separates.